May 4, 2012

Florida Enhanced Life Estate Deed and Medicaid Planning

A Florida Enhanced Life Estate Deed (sometimes called "The Lady-Bird Deed" is a tool used by Florida Estate Planning Attorneys, Florida Elder Law Attorneys, and other by Florida Lawyers to preserve the homestead for the benefit of the family and avoid a Probate in Florida. Upon the death of the homeowner's the property will pass to the people designated without the need for a costly probate process in much the same way as a bank account with a beneficiary designation.

Jacksonville Duval Clay Orange ParkWhy Use an Enhanced Life Estate Deed?
The Florida Enhanced Life Estate Deed provides a mechanism to bypass the probate process and thus the creditors. Under this document, the husband and/or wife retain a Life Estate Interest under which he or she retains the right to live on the property for their life. Unlike a Life estate, the husband and/or wife retain the right to sell, mortgage, convey, gift, or cancel the remainder interest at any time during their life. If there is any property interest upon the last to die of the husband and/or wife, the remainder will pass in fee simple to the designated individuals named in the deed.

Who should use the Enhanced Life Estate Deed?
A Florida Enhanced Life Estate Deed or Florida Lady-Bird Deed should be use by individuals or couples who want to simplify the transfer of their property upon their death and retain full authority and possession over their property.

Will using an Enhanced Life Estate Deed affect my Florida Medicaid Eligibility?
As long as the individuals demonstrate an "intent-to-return" to the homestead Medicaid Eligibility should not be affected.

What are some common mistakes with deeds?
Many Florida residents add their children on their deeds as Joint Tenants with Rights of Survivorship.
Many Florida Residents deed their property to their children and retain a life estate.

What can happen if I have made a common mistake on my deed?
1) My home may not be protected from creditors and/or loose its homestead protection.
2) I may be disqualified from Medicaid in the event that I need to go into a Nursing home.
3) I may have made a gift, subject to Federal Gift Taxes, Penalties, and Interest which my heirs and/or family may be responsible for paying.
4) I may not be able to sell my home or use the proceeds from my home to enhance my quality of life, travel, or pay for the necessary medical care I need.

If I have made a mistake transferring my property, can it be fixed?
Yes, You should meet with a Florida Estate Planning Lawyer to evaluate your situation, and prepare the documents necessary to allow you to qualify for Medicaid, deal with the Gift taxes, protect your homestead, and pass your homestead to the desired beneficiaries without the costly expense and delay of Florida probate.

May 3, 2012

Gay and Lesbian Issues Breaking News

The fight for Jacksonville equality is reaching its crescendo. The Jacksonville City Council will soon consider legislation presented to them which if passed would offer protections to the LGBT community. Currently, the Jacksonville human rights ordinance does not provide protection for the gay community. That means that those persons who are gay, lesbian, and transgender have little to no shelter from discrimination in the workplace, housing, and public accommodations.

There have been several Florida cities and municipalities that have amended or put in place legislation to protect this vulnerable segment of society. If passed the bill in Jacksonville would prohibit discrimination based on sexual orientation and gender identity.

Almost two weeks ago, Tampa Mayor, Bob Buckhorn signed legislation that will put into place a Domestic Partnership Registry. Similar registries exist in Palm Beach County, Miami-Dade County, and more recently Orange County.

The requirements to register are many but usually require that, among other things.

(1) The couple resides in the county where they apply;
(2) each person is 18 years of age; and
(3) Each party agrees to be jointly responsible for each other's basic good, shelter, common necessities of life and welfare.
The benefits can be huge, including the ability to visit and make decisions regarding health care and funeral/burial arrangements, pre-need guardian designation for incapacitated partners, and visitation rights in correctional and health care facilities.

If you are interested in learning ways in which you can protect your rights and the rights of your partner, contact a Jacksonville Gay and Lesbian Estate Planning Lawyer.

May 1, 2012

What are Probate Assets in Florida?

Florida statutes define probate assets as those assets subject to a probate administration. There are several types of Probate in Florida which are discussed in our Free Florida Probate Handbook that you can request.

Often it is easier to define which assets are not subject to probate.
In Florida any asset with a surviving joint owner, valid payable on death designation, or contract clause which defines what happens to the asset upon death are not subject to probate. Often these include life insurance policies, annuities contract or retirement account with a transfer on death clause, jointly owned bank accounts, real estate with and valid beneficiary designation clause. One of the most common items that is not subject to probate is a Florida homestead. While a homestead is not devised through probate typically, title companies will often require it to be dealt with in a Florida probate to issue title insurance. The good news is unless you messed up your will or other documents, a Florida Homestead will not be subject to the claims of your creditors or the creditors of your beneficiaries if it is their homestead.

a Florida Probate can be expensive so it is wise to review your estate plan with a Jacksonville Estate Planning Lawyer to see if any of your assets will be subject to a Florida Probate and if a probate in Florida can be avoided.

April 30, 2012

Can Paternity Be established in a Florida probate?

There are very limited opportunities to establish paternity after the death of a parent but it is possible to do so as long as the mother was not married at the time the child was born and no paternity has been previously established.

According the Florida Department of Heath, if a birth record contains an error it may be possible to correct the record depending on the type of correct and the age of resistant, documentary evidence may be required to support the correction.

Once the father has died it is still possible to establish paternity by one of the following

(a) The natural parents participated in a marriage ceremony before or after the birth of the person born out-of-wedlock, even though the attempted marriage is void.

(b) The paternity of the father is established by an adjudication before or after the death of the father. Chapter 95 shall not apply in determining heirs in a probate proceeding under this paragraph.

(c) The paternity of the father is acknowledged in writing by the father.


Acknowledgment in writing may be in the form of a birth certificate, affidavit, or other writing such as a beneficiary designation under a life insurance policy. There are no formalities that are required and one court refused to require such evidence. In re: Estate of Jerrido, 339 So.2d 237 (Fla. 4th DCA 1976) the court refused to require authenticated evidence.

April 27, 2012

Florida Nursing Home Penalty Divisor Update 2012 by DCF

It has been many years since the regional divisor has been updated. For the last several years the penalty period was calculated using an outdated nursing home cost of $5000. As of now, the divisor has been raised from $5000 to $6880 in Florida (Florida Administrative Code)

What does this mean? If one does property planning, they can give away $6880 and only have a 1 month penalty. This becomes important when doing planning for individuals who have nursing home exposure.

This will significantly increase the amount of money most people could save by doing elder law planning in Florida. As you age it is important to consider both Florida Estate Planning and elder law when structuring your plan.

April 19, 2012

Law Review Article on Digital Assets & Estate Planning

John B. Conner has written a Law Review article in the Estate Planning and Community Property Law Journal titled "DIGITAL LIFE AFTER DEATH: THE ISSUE OF PLANNING FOR A PERSON'S DIGITAL ASSETS AFTER DEATH"

The article starts off discussing issues of digital assets and estate planning by defining digital assets and then discussing issues in estate planning created by digital assets.

It goes on to talk about how websites are dealing with digital assets and privacy acts as the relate to deceased users with social networking, web-based email, blogs and other online content.

Mr. Conner then give some suggestions for dealing with digital assets properly through planning, and some of the problems with using standard wills or other documents.

He then discusses post mortem identity theft and content theft from the deceased blogs and concludes that as the Internet continues to grow the need for estate planners who are able to deal with digital assets will continue to expand. Some state are attempting to implement legislation to help deal with these issues but those may only help if you die in one of those states.

I have recognized the need for planning for your digital death for several years and have been dealing with clients to design systems that will help provide for their digital death. If your current estate plan has not contemplated your digital death, perhaps you should talk with someone who understands how to deal with this unique class of assets.

While we have been saying this for years and it is the reason we created the original Gun Trust it is nice to see others in the legal community begin to recognize the difference and purpose in firearms trusts. Our trust are now designed for all firearms and not just NFA firearms.

April 12, 2012

Are Trust Protectors Good or Bad?

A trust protector is a person or group of people (not the settlor, beneficiary, or trustee) who are appointed to exercise one or more powers affecting a trust and the interest of the beneficiaries. The concept of a trust protector is to protect beneficiaries from a rogue trustee. They can often make changes to a trust involving who the trustees are, investment decisions, change how distributions are made and in some cases modify or terminate a trust.

They can provide help when circumstances change and the settlor's intentions are not being dealt with properly. While a trustee has fiduciary duties, in most cases a trust protector acts as an agent of the settlor and may not have the same duties as other trustees.

Others argue that you should impose fiduciary duties on the trust protectors and make them accountable to the beneficiaries. As such, it is important to have detailed discussions with clients about the roles and responsibilities of trust protectors. Their powers and limitations should be clearly defined to limit the scope of their actions.

Some recommend that while imposing a fiduciary duty on a trust protector, the claims can be limited by removing liability for simple negligence but not gross negligence or when their conduct amounts to a willful breach of their fiduciary duty.

If you have trust protectors in your trust, it is important to review the powers and limitations and to what standard they will be held if they damage the beneficiaries.

If you would like to add trust protectors to a trust to protect from improper actions of a named trustee or in the event of changed circumstances which may frustrate the settlor's intentions, you should contact a Florida Estate Planning Lawyer to discuss your circumstances and desires.

April 11, 2012

Slayer Statute and Asset Protection in Probate

The Florida Slayer Statute bars a murderer from profiting off the victim's assets. The victim's assets which are subject to a Florida Probate pass as if the murderer had predeceased the victim and other jointly held assets are severed so that the victim and murder each owned 50%.

One problem with the slayer statute is that the effect of the statute does not take place until there is either a criminal or civil conviction. It is possible to make changes to the ownership of the assets prior to a court determination that the slayer statute applies. While there are some safeguards in place to prevent those with knowledge from profiting from these types of transfers, there appears to be certain situations where one could protect the assets prior to such a determination. I have not seen any case-law where this has been challenged and do not know what the outcome would be but like with many asset protection techniques, it can put someone in a better position to negotiate if there are any funds or asset left.

One recent case in South Florida involved a beneficiary of a trust. This individual adopted his girlfriend so that she would be a legal beneficiary of the trust. While it does not appear that these asset would have been subject to a slayer statute claim, it is the type of planning that we are referring to and can create the desired results through creative planning.

If you are involved with a potential probate in which a relative was believed to be responsible for the murder of the decedent, contact a Jacksonville Probate Lawyer to discuss how to structure the assets or what steps can be taken to protect your rights.

April 10, 2012

Inheriting Debt from a Probate

We often get asked questions as a Ponte Vedra Beach Probate Lawyer about inheriting debt. Just as you can inherit property and other assets from a Florida Estate, it is possible to inherit the debt that is associated with the property.

When the debt associated with an asset is worth more than the asset itself, one must decide whether they want the asset or not. Just because you inherit something does not automatically mean you are financially responsible for the debt which is associate with the property.

In Ponte Vedra Beach and around Florida we are finding that homes often are worth less than the amount of debt remaining on the mortgage. Just because you inherit the property does not make you responsible for the debt. You may abandon the property in the Florida Probate or decide not to even probate the property or estate until the item which are upside down are dealt with in legal proceedings such as a Florida Foreclosure Case.

The only way a beneficiary is responsible for the debt is if they were a co-signer on the debt or signed a new document which created a financial responsibility.

If you are dealing with a Florida Probate and there are assets which may not be worth what is owed, you should contact a Ponte Vedra Beach Probate Lawyer to discuss your options.

April 6, 2012

Digital Asset Trusts: To my loving wife I leave my iTunes account


Estate planning is an important event in one's life. The fruits of a life time of hard work, passed down in the hopes that they will serve their next owner well. But in this modern age we live in, online digital assets are frequently left out of the estate planning process.

Much of our the time we spend each day is on the internet. How much of your information and is floating out there on the internet Between Facebook, PayPal, Flickr, twitter, iTunes, email addresses, passwords, user names and passwords, we have a lot of information that is not readily available to others if we should become incapacitated or die. In this age of the internet what happens to all of that personal info when we finally shed our mortal coil and update our Facebook status to dead? Do we want to loose our Facebook account when we die? Once the status is updated to deceased, it cannot be modified, updated, or used for other purposes. It continues to exist, just as you left it, until the asteroid strikes earth, or the apes rise up, or whatever your favorite end of the word scenario is, ends up happening. There may be value to your family or estate in being able to communicate with your previous friends.

To some this is perfectly acceptable. Some Facebook albums just never need to be seen again, for the good of all mankind. The problem arises when there is something worth saving, something worth passing down. The picture of you two on graduation day, wedding photos, that blog about the summer you spent in Europe, or photographic proof of how much more attractive your grandma was at your age. The memories and happiness that these photos will bring your loved ones is immeasurable. There may be things that your family wants to remove or modify. Something that was important to you, which they can now keep close, fondly reflect on, or pass down themselves. The hitch is only you knew your log in info, and your dead, and those close to you can't guess the answer to your asinine password hint question. What is the name of my mother's favorite pet? Seriously.... she lived to a hundred and had 9 cats when she died. How am I supposed to guess that.

The problem of how to handle digital assets is new, but the solution on the other hand is not. The formation of a trust to manage your digital assets can insure that before you pass on, you can form a plan to you give those closest to you the tools to ensure that the virtual you, that online life you build, isn't quarantined in internet limbo, but safely in the care of those you choose.

April 5, 2012

Florida Asset Protection Update

asset-protection-cash.jpgA Florida Asset Protection Lawyer is of most use when you do not have any potential liabilities. When you have a known creditor, you have to be concerned with fraudulent conveyances and fraudulent transfers. Generally if you participate in a fraudulent conveyance or transfer the court can undo a transaction within 4 years of its occurrence.

A Fraudulent Transfer occurs when you transfer an asset to put it outside the reach of a creditor.

A Fraudulent Conveyance occurs when you transfer an asset for less than full value and this causes harm to a potential creditor.

There are many ways of protecting assets as part of an overall Florida Estate Plan but careful consideration must be taken of your present situation and circumstances. Some of the tools used by Florida Asset Protection Lawyers include creating Florida Asset Protection Trusts, Domestic asset protection trusts, limited liability companies, limited partnerships, Florida LLLPs, and different forms of ownership.

In addition to how the assets are structured there can be different ways in which you spend "at risk" money and save money that is not at risk. If you would like to learn more about Florida Asset Protection, contact us to discuss your circumstances and objectives with a Florida Asset Protection Lawyer.

Note: Asset Protection is a complex practice area and as such we do not offer free consultations in this area. A typical consultation takes 2 or more hours.

March 30, 2012

Florida Makes Power of Attorney Documents More Dangerous

With the recent changes to the Florida Statutes, it is even more dangerous to use Powers of Attorney documents created by online systems or found in forms books. Not only is there a big risk that they will not comply with the new Florida laws and be worthless, but if they are valid, you run a big risk of handing someone a blank check. YES that is what many are calling the powers contained in the new Florida Durable Powers of Attorney act.

While those using a POA are supposed to act in a fiduciary capacity, when they do not, someone has to complain about it or nothing will be done. While under Florida's Elder Law abuse statutes, anyone may complain about the actions of another who is over the age of 55, those under 55 who grant powers of attorney have little recourse when their power of attorney is abused without their knowledge.

More Jacksonville Estate Planning Lawyers are creating systems to accomplish the springing powers that have recently been stripped from the statutes.

Many are asking who pushed for these new changes. The answer is simple, the banks. It is easier for banks to understand what they have to do with the new documents, it limits lawsuits against banks, but all of this comes with great potential harm to the consumer.

individual already do not understand how to properly structure a Power of Attorney, now many will create invalid powers and potentially incur thousands of dollars of additional legal expenses when they find that they are not valid or do not provide the rights necessary to make gifts, create revocable and irrevocable trusts, or do planning that will enable an individual to preserve their assets instead of spending down their assets to qualify for government benefits. (Currently an individual must spend their assets down to less than $2000 before receiving government benefits.)

Even if they have no assets and can qualify for nursing home coverage, they may have too much income to qualify. Most free or low-cost powers of attorney do not provide the correct language necessary to create income trusts.

Some of the Major changes


  • Agents May not Take Any Actions not Clearly Granted to Them
  • New Springing Powers of Attorney Are No Longer Recognized
  • Certain Delegations of Authority Require the Principal's Initials or Signature
    • Creating an inter vivos trust
    • Amending, modifying, revoking, or terminating an existing trust (additionally, the trust instrument must explicitly authorize the settlor's agent to exercise such authority)
    • Making gifts, subject to statutory limits
    • Creating or changing rights of survivorship
    • Creating or changing a beneficiary designation
    • Waiving the principal's right to be a beneficiary of a joint and survivor annuity, including a survivor benefit under a retirement plan
    • Disclaiming property and powers of appointment
  • Some Delegations of Authority are Ineffective (Even With the Principal's Consent)
    • Perform a contract under which the principal was obligated to provide "personal services"
    • Make an affidavit as to the personal knowledge of the plaintiff (in other words, take an oath affirming facts which the principal did or did not know)
    • Vote in a public election on behalf of the principal
    • Execute or revoke a will for the principal
    • Exercise authority granted to the principal in her capacity as trustee or as a court-appointed fiduciary
  • General Language No Longer Sufficient to Revoke Prior Powers of Attorney
  • Co-Agents Can Act Independently on the Principal's Behalf
  • Co-Agents to report wrongdoing or become liable for others actions

If you are looking to create a Florida Power of Attorney you should discuss your goals, objective,and limitations under the new Florida law to make sure you create the documents necessary to be able to provide for yourself and family in the case you become incapacitated at sometime in the future.


March 30, 2012

2012 Tax Planning Seminar

David Adams of David N. Adams, Inc is having a Tax Planning Seminar to discuss the new tax laws which are set to start in 2013. The topics discussed will include information on current and future:

  • Income Tax Rates
  • Capital Gains Tax
  • Tax Strategies
  • Taxation of Dividend Income
  • New Medicare Tax
  • Estate Tax Schedules
He has invited his clients as well as our clients and readers of this blog to attend a Free Dinner at Maggiano's where these topics will be discussed. I will be a guest speaker at the event. If you would like to attend, please contact his office to RSVP.
The event will be 6:30-8:00 pm
Maggiano's Little Italy
St. Johns Town Center
10367 Midtown Parkway
Jacksonville, FL 32246

Seating is limited! Please call 904-339-0015 to reserve your seat today!

This information is not intended to be a substitute for specific individualized tax, legal or investment planning advice as individual situations will vary. Event partially sponsored by SunAmerica Capital Services and Cole Capital Corp., Member FINRA/SIPC.
Securities and investment advisory services offered through SagePoint Financial, Inc, Member FINRA/SIPC and a registered investment advisor. Fixed and/or Traditional Insurance Services Offered through David N. Adams, Inc. which. is not affiliated with SagePoint Financial, Inc. or registered as a broker-dealer or investment advisor. 324 6th Avenue North, Jacksonville Beach, FL 32250

March 29, 2012

How Many Death certificates Do I Need? What are the Differences?

The number of death certificates you will need will vary greatly depending on the amount and number of assets that the person had at the time of death. Most insurance companies, banks, & many creditors will request a death certificate. In addition, you will need a death certificate (short form - one without the cause of death) to open a probate case in Florida. While insurance companies will typically ask for a long version, most other creditors and institutions are ok with a short version. The Probate court will not accept a short version. For this reason it is a good idea to get 3-5 long versions and 5-10 short versions. You can always get more and many companies only need to see a copy of a death certificate.

March 28, 2012

Effects of Splitting Anniuty can be Harsh!

Sometimes clients who are in a divorce are ordered to split up assets. Some of these assets can have large penalties when surrendered. Once such example is an annuity. Often annuities have surrender charges and can also have tax penalties when they are held within an IRA. You might have a high yielding annuity that has a 10% surrender charge as well as a 10% additional tax penalty for removing funds early.

If your incremental income is taxed at 35% and you had to pay a 10 % penalty and 10% surrender charge, you could lose over 50% of the assets value to taxes and penalties. In addition, it may be hard to achieve the returns that many older higher yielding annuities are earning.

If you find yourself in such a situation, you may want to see if you can swap assets so that you can keep the annuity but pay the other party their share of its value without the penalty and tax consequences.