Articles Posted in Durable Power of Attorney

With the current estate tax exception of $5.43 Million for an individual and $10.86 Milliion for a married couple, some estate planners have begun to question whether gifting provisions in a Durable Power of Attorney pose more risk than reward.  While it is true, that these provisions can be abused by individuals, there are several situations when estate taxes is not the primary concern and removing gifting provisions could pose a substantial risk to the individuals.

In Florida, individuals must initial next to any gifting provision for them to be valid under current law.  Generally there are those provisions which permit the amount under the annual gift tax exemption (currently $14,000 a year per person) and those which permit larger gifting.  While many estate planners may not see a need for these anymore, elder law attorneys use them all the time to protect the assets from loss due to the need for nursing home coverage for the individual or their spouse.  So while it may be true that less than 0.2%  (2 in 1000) people are actually subject to estate taxes, many more will need long term care.  Without these important gifting provisions, individuals could end up being bankrupt or leaving little or no money for their surviving spouse to live on.

In addition, there is no guarantee that the estate tax exemption will continue to increase or remain the same. Congress could change the numbers in the future and without gifting provisions, your family may not be able to decrease the amount of your estate that would be subject to estate taxes.

As most young adults are about to return to college, most parents do not think about the fact that not that their child is 18 they are an adult in the eyes of the law. Deborah Jacobs has written an article on this in Forbes outlining two documents that are needed. Most professionals would agree that there are actually 3 that are needed.

Now that they are an adult, parents can no longer make health care of the financial decisions for their children without the legal authorization to do so.

If a child or young adult is injured or needs help with a financial matter, a parent cannot speak with doctors or help the child with financial decisions with our a power of attorney. Once a child reaches the age of 18, it is important to prepare financial and medical powers of attorney to that someone can help the child if they are injured or disabled without having to go through the expensive process of setting up a guardianship.

Many people see joint accounts as a cheap and easy way to avoid probate, since joint property passes to the join owner at death, but these accounts can actually be quite risky when it comes to estate planning.

Joint ownership of accounts can be a great way to easily pass assets to another owner at death. Joint ownership is also a great way to plan for an elder person’s incapacity, since the joint owner of the account can pay bills and manage investments if the primary owner falls ill or suffers from any other sickness.

There are some potential downsides to joint ownership of an account. The biggest factor to consider is the risk of joint ownership. Joint owners have complete access to the account, and the ability to use the account funds for any purpose. When children are made joint owners of an account, it is often the case they can take money without consulting with the other children.

Probate is the system the court uses to administer a person’s estate, either through a will or through intestate succession. Clients often ask for ways to avoid the probate process, such as adding a child to their bank account or adding the child’s name to the deed.

Adding a Child to a Bank Account

In most cases, adding a child to your bank account is not a good idea. A parent who adds a child to his or her bank account, may interfere with the will, and could put the account’s funds at risk.

Estate Planning.jpgA Durable Power of Attorney (DPA) allows you, the “principal”, to designate someone, the “agent”, to act on your behalf. Depending on the DPA, your agent will have authority to oversee your financial affairs or your medical treatment. Having a DPA is a good idea, but only if it is done properly. Otherwise, a DPA will probably not serve its intended purpose and it might create additional problems. To avoid this, contact an estate-planning attorney to assist you with this issue. Meanwhile, this blog discusses three important reasons to hire an estate-planning attorney to draft your DPA.

1. A DPA is effective right after it is executed.

Before October 2011, a DPA could remain “dormant” after it was executed. This type of DPA is known as “springing DPA” and is not effective until the occurrence of the event specified in the document, like the principal’s incapacity. However, pursuant to a revision to Florida Statutes section 709.2108, a DPA is ineffective if it provides that it is to become effective at a future date or upon the occurrence of a future event or contingency. Therefore, springing DPAs are no longer recognized by Florida and a DPA is effective the moment that is executed. So if you want a DPA to protect your financial affairs in the event that you become incapacitated, your agent will have authority to oversee your finances as soon as the DPA is created. This can be a problem. Even if your agent is a person that you completely trust, like your spouse, the fact that he or she has authority over your finances can be against your interests. An estate-planning attorney from the Law Office of David M. Goldman PLLC conveniently addresses this issue by offering an escrow service in which you chose the attorney as your agent and instruct him or her what to do in the event that the DPA is used. Meanwhile, the DPA will be kept in a secure place and will not be used unless you instruct the attorney to do so, a court mandates the attorney to do so, or two Affidavits from two different Doctors state that you are incapable of deciding for yourself. This way you can be better assured that your agent will not abuse his or her power over your affairs.

checklist.pngUpdating your estate plan is as important as having one. Many find it easy to procrastinate about updating their estate plan because they do not want to spend the money on a Florida estate-planning attorney. However, a lot of money can be lost through missed estate planning opportunities and family legal battles over out of date estate planning documents. Therefore, updating your estate plan can actually save money in the long run. Many Florida estate-planning lawyers, including the Law Office of David M. Goldman PLLC, will actually review your current estate plan free of charge. When updating your estate plan, consider the following points.

  • Consider whether you need a trust: A trust can be very helpful to achieve your goals, even if you do not have a lot of assets. In numerous situations, a trust or series of trusts in conjunction with other documents can be the best option for even those with modest means. Trusts are often used for the following reasons
    • Protect your assets from creditors
    • Provide for the car of your family and yourself financially in case you no longer are able to handle your own affairs.
    • Provide for children of a previous marriage in the case of your death.
    • Avoid probate, keep your assets private, and save money for your beneficiaries
    • Protect money for minors, so they cannot spend the money in the trust immediately on thing you may consider unnecessary.
    • Protect assets from a future ex son or daughter-in-law.
  • File an estate tax return if you lost your spouse: A surviving spouse has the option of adding any unused tax exclusion of the deceased spouse to her own $5 million exclusion. This option is known as “portability”. You may thin that you will never need this additional exclusion, but they laws could change and significantly reduce the amount of portability in the future. Portability is not automatic. To get portability, the executor of the estate of the decedent spouse must file an estate tax return, even if no estate tax is due.
  • Consider whether to give away some of your assets now to save taxes: If you have enough money for retirement, it might be in your best interest to transfer some of it now to save some taxes. If you have a lot of assets, it is a good idea to seek an estate planning attorney to discuss the option of using leveraging techniques that can allow you to give away a large part of your assets gift-tax free.
  • Update basic estate planning documents: If you have not revised your estate plan in more than five years, then you should have someone look at your current estate plan to make sure it still reflects your intent and is flexible enough to accommodate present uncertainties. Consult an estate planning attorney to discuss whether your current estate plan needs some arrangements.
  • Prepare for a time when you may not be able to think for yourself: Notwithstanding your present age or health it is important to prepare for the possibility of becoming physically or mentally incapacitated. To prepare for this possibility, you should select someone to be a durable power of attorney for health care as well as financial decisions.
  • Chose a guardian for your children that are minors or have special needs: Even if you are married it is important to select who will take care of your children if you pass away so that a court is not making this decision on behalf of your children. This can be done by appointing a guardian in your will.
  • Use beneficiary designations or style accounts to assure you or your spouse has enough money to cover immediate expenses in case one of you suddenly passes away. It is wise to maintain a joint account designated for these types of emergencies because when a spouse dies, the surviving spouse generally does not have immediate access to the decedent spouse’s private bank account. These issues can also be dealt with in various types of Trust documents.

An estate planning attorney can review your current estate plan to assure that your intent has not been frustrated with circumstances arising after the creation of your estate plan. New laws or unconsidered circumstances can easily frustrate at least part of your estate plan’s purpose. For an estate planning attorney in Florida, call the Law Office of David M. Goldman PLLC at (904) 685 – 1200 or click the “Contact Us” tab at the top of the page.

Many of our clients and readers in Florida are caregivers of elderly parents; they have chosen to take responsibility for their parents–whether it be physical responsibility, financial, or other. But what if instead of making that choice, you had responsibility for your aging parents thrust upon you? This is exactly what happened in the case of Health Care & Retirement Corporation of America v. Pittas, recently brought before the Pennsylvania appeals court.

This particular case states that “On or about September 24, 2007, after completing rehabilitation for injuries sustained in a car accident, Appellant’s [John Pitta’s] mother was transferred to a HCR facility for skilled nursing care and treatment. Appellant’s mother resided in the facility and was treated by HCR until March of 2008. In March of 2008 Appellant’s mother withdrew from the HCR facility and relocated to Greece.”

Following Pittas’ mother’s relocation, a large portion of her bill at the nursing home went unpaid. Mr. Pittas’ mother applied to Medicaid to cover her care, but while that application was still pending, the nursing home sought to hold Mr. Pittas responsible for the debt under the state’s filial responsibility law. Although the case went to an arbitration panel which initially ruled in favor of Mr. Pittas, eventually the Pennsylvania trial court ruled in favor of the nursing home, holding Pittas responsible for nearly $93,000 of his mother’s nursing expenses.

Advance directives.jpgYou asked and a Jacksonville Estate Planning Lawyer will advise you that according to Florida Law, an “Advance directive” means a witnessed written document or oral statement in which instructions are given by a principal or in which the principal’s desires are expressed concerning any aspect of the principal’s health care, and includes, but is not limited to, the designation of a health care surrogate, a living will, or an anatomical gift.

A Health Care Surrogate is chosen by the principal to act for the principal and to make all health care decisions for him or her during the principal’s incapacity. The health care surrogate has the authority to consult with appropriate health care providers, to provide informed consent, to provide written consent, to be provided access to the appropriate medical records of the principal, and to apply for public benefits, such as Medicare and Medicaid on behalf of the principal.

The written designation of health care shall be signed by the principal in the presence of two adult witnesses. The person designated as surrogate shall not act as witness to the execution of the document designating the health care surrogate. At least one person who acts as a witness shall be neither the principal’s spouse nor a blood relative. It is strongly suggested that the execution of the designation of health care surrogate be done in front of a notary.

Estate Planning.jpgWe all need someone to look after us and care for us when we become part of the eldery population. We also need to take care of our spouses, our children, and our loved ones, when we have passed away. Looking to, and preparing for our future is in a nutshell, what Estate Planning in Jacksonville is all about.

Florida Estate Planning can be as simple as having your Florida Will, Florida Living Will, Florida Designation of Health Care Surrogate, and Florida Durable Power of Attorney prepared. You can also have different types of trusts prepared if you would rather have your assets managed by a trusted individual, after your death. In Florida, Trusts are also a great way to minimize your taxes as well as to manage your assets.

Preparing for future medical and financial decisions to be made on our behalf in the event of our incapacity, or illness, is the reason we prepare a Living Will, Do Not Resucitate Order, Health Care Surrogate Designation, and Power of Attorney.

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